As an initiative of the European Commission (EC), the Twinning instrument was launched in 1998 to support candidate countries in their integration process to the European Union (EU). Originally, it was conceived as an instrument for targeted administrative cooperation assisting the candidate countries in strengthening their administrative and juridical capacity to implement Community legislation.
The Twinning instrument was firstly implemented in candidate countries under PHARE programme (1998-2004) and in Balkan countries under CARDS programme (2005-2006). After accession the new EU Member States could still use Twinning instrument under Transition Facility programme (2004-2006). From 2006 the Twinning instrument was implemented under IPA programme for the new EU Member States and Balkan countries replacing previous PHARE, Transition Facility and CARDS programmes. From 2004 the Twinning instrument was available also in countries under TACIS and MEDA programmes called ENP programme since 2007.
Twinning has played a vital role in institution building undertakings in the new Member States under the Transition Facility (TF), and it remains a crucial institution building instrument in Turkey and in other candidate countries. It gained new impetus when Twinning instrument was extended to countries neighbouring with the EU. Developed in view of the EU enlargement of May 2004, the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) sets a framework for the EU relations with the Eastern and Southern neighbours. The overall goal of the ENP is to foster the political and economic reform process, promote closer economic integration, legal and technical approximation and sustainable development. In ENP countries the Twinning aims at modernising the institutions in beneficiary countries through training, reorganisation and drafting of laws and regulations modelled after the EU acquis. The transfer of know-how and best practices is done in a practical way from peer to peer in the context of the ENP.
Over the period of 1998-2014, more than 3,300 Twinning projects have been implemented in the framework of above mentioned programmes.
In the context of Azerbaijan, Twinning is of crucial strategic importance for the country, as it will help the Government to implement the agenda embedded in the following, assisting the country to develop modern and efficient administrations for the implementation of the pieces of the EU legislation and best policies:
- EU-Azerbaijan Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (1999)
- EU-Azerbaijan ENP Action Plan (2006)
- Country Strategy Paper (2007-2013)
- National Indicative Programme (2011-2013)
- Comprehensive Institution Building (2011)
As of 10 October 2019, total of 45 twinning projects were implemented in Azerbaijan. 40 of them were completed successfully, while 5 projects are on-going. The table below highlights the state of play in implementation of the Twinning Programme in Azerbaijan:
|Budget year||Twinning Budget||Number of Projects||Status|
|TACIS-2006||€5,5 mln.||5||All projects completed|
|ENPI-2007||€5,0 mln.||5||All projects completed|
|ENPI-2008||€6,0 mln.||5||All projects completed|
|ENPI-2009||€6,0 mln.||6||All projects completed|
|ENPI-2010||€6,7 mln.||5||All projects completed|
|ENPI-2011||€8,0 mln.||4||All projects completed|
|ENPI-2012||€10,5 mln.||7||All projects completed|
3 projects completed
3 project are on-going
|ENI-2014||€1,2 mln.||1 project is on-going|
|ENI-2015||€2,15 mln.||1 project is on-going|
For more information on the Twinning implementation in Azerbaijan, please visit the page "Twinning in Azerbaijan" of this website.